Tag: Trees of Beeston

Summer Trees

Summer Trees: an appreciation of three trees along Queens Road*

*Or just off it

As I write this issue of Trees of Beeston, the sun is scorching and a heatwave has kicked in, so I wanted to reflect on the glorious street trees that provide shade and respite from weather extremes in our town. In particular, the trees on or just off Queens Road. There are too few where once there were lines of poplar trees, these have now been replaced by driveways and parking. I was genuinely gutted to witness the cutting down of the silver birches that were once on King Street, the first trees I wrote about for The Beestonian back in 2018. I am sometimes concerned that this column could perform a Medusa style kiss-of-death whenever I mention the notable trees beloved of the community! I missed the silver birches very much walking past in the blazing sun earlier. Same with the large tree that was next to the Rockaway / now private flats along Station road near the slip-road to the train station.

So I want to dare to salute and acknowledge three trees: the Alder on the corner of Station Road and Queens Road (behind the billboard and what was once public toilets latterly Vicky’s beauty bar), that provides dappled shade while waiting to cross at the junction of Station Road and Queens Road, where birds perch and sing.

Further along Queens Road heading into Nottingham there is, on the right-hand side the copper beech tree of Queens Road near Alexander Crescent with its seasonally changing leaf colours, and tall aspect for blackbird song in the spring. Every time I see it, I am reminded of the Sherlock Holmes Copper Beeches mystery (if you haven’t read it, do so, it’s a joy, Beeston Library has a copy). This is a spectacular tree, casting its shade and cover across the road and providing shade to anyone waiting for the bus into town.

Finally, I want to mention the majestic Tree Preservation Order protected (so I have been unofficially informed) sycamore tree of Henry Street where owls are heard to hoot and bats have been seen. Plaques have been placed on this tree to reflect the local love for it, a reminder that our Beeston trees are loved and appreciated beyond the short term cutting-down profiteering of the absentee landlords who appear to target this part of Beeston for rental properties, levelling down any trees or plants that might serve as a financial loss in their maintenance.

I am reminded walking down Station Road towards Beeston centre that the house with the plaque ‘The Beeches’ on it was likely named after trees that were planted along the road a century ago. Many towns that developed their roads after WW1 began street tree planting programmes in order to create idealised living landscapes for those returning from the Western Front. The remains of one old beech tree – its low-cut trunk and roots bears witness to the likelihood of this.

A majestic tall mature tree is a privilege to behold and be around. Trees are recognised to add value to properties (think of the lovely leafy trees along Devonshire Avenue!), so when there are few tall street trees, they should be treasured.  In the cold of winter, tree canopies trap in the warmth and provide shelter from the rain and snow. Tree canopies provide splendid shade and cool temperatures in the heat, especially good if one is waiting for a bus (thank you copper beech of Queens Road!), and the evapotranspiration of water from the leaves has a cooling effect on the surrounding air. Trees properly placed around buildings can reduce air conditioning needs by 30% and in the winter save energy used for heating between 20 – 50%.  In addition to this, trees provide habitat, food and protection to plants and animals, increasing urban biodiversity which is good for the wellbeing of humans and animals.

Of course, trees need to be maintained. Coppicing a tree, maintaining its branches helps both the tree and the humans around. Make sure you find a qualified tree surgeon though, then they will maintain and care for your tree.

If you don’t have a tree, have a look around on your wanderings around Beeston, choose your favourite tree, and adopt it. Look out for it. Take care of it. Give it a hug. Artists and scientists recognise the enriching capacity of hugging a tree, and it will do you a world of good.

If you have space in your front or back garden, consider planting a tree.  Even miniature trees in pots on a balcony can improve your quality of life and that of the insects and bird wildlife. As the saying goes, the best time to plant a tree is yesterday, the second best time is now.


Reference: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations website / benefit of urban trees.

Tree Guardians Wanted!

Summer here in Beeston is increasingly unpredictable. Of course, the British love to discuss the weather, but extremes of cold and heavy rain, hail and flooded gardens one week and scorching hot sun the next is a marked reminder that our planet is heating up and extreme weather conditions become more extreme and more predictably unpredictable!  Such changes mark a significant shift in our landscapes, activities and the survival of species on our planet, not least that of human survival.  As regular readers of Trees of Beeston column will know, I am passionate about valuing and protecting the arboreal inhabitants of our part of Nottinghamshire.  Trees bring multiple benefits – oxygen production, carbon-dioxide absorption, providing habitats for bugs, birds and mammals, food provision for all kinds of animals, to say nothing of the shade in the summer, water absorption capacities when heavy rain and snow descend. Everyone should have a tree that they look after.

Trees of Beeston column is handed over to the fantastic Helene who is spearheading a campaign to reforest Broxtowe. I’ll let Helene explain more. If you would like to become a tree guardian and grow some acorns, please see the end of this article for more details. If everyone planted a tree what a phenomenal legacy it would be for future Beestonians! Here’s Helene with more:

OK, in a nutshell, national government climate change targets are talking about increasing the urban tree canopy to 30% (currently around 15%). Do you want to make sure that happens on our patch, on our watch?

As I was planting a few acorns collected on the Bramcote Ridge in Autumn, I mused, wouldn’t it be great if everyone grew and planted a few trees each year? I know plenty of people like me with gardens or allotments. Do you have a little outdoor space for a few pots to grow a few saplings? The basic idea is to get as many people as possible who will be willing to plant and look after 20 or more saplings in their gardens/allotments.

The Guardians will grow the tree saplings from seed or cuttings, look after them for approximately 2 years and then either give them back or plant them out themselves in the places designated by Broxtowe Borough Council. The aim is to give growers a vested interest in their trees, from seed to planting out, and into the future with watering and perhaps surveying. I would love for people to be able to plant their trees local to them so they can watch them grow to maturity.

I wanted to start this project in Autumn 2021 with some organized forays into woodland areas to collect seeds, nuts and acorns. Broxtowe Borough Council were very supportive of the idea.

However, fate or Mother Nature had other plans. Apparently 2020 was a bumper year for acorns. The council were contacted by a couple who have a 180 year old oak in their garden. They had sacks and sacks of acorns and were trying to find a good home/use for them. We were put in touch and I couldn’t refuse. So this year we start with oaks.

I first did a little pilot survey with members of a local nature reserve ‘Friends of’ group and some friends. After a very positive response to the idea I decided to go ahead. I already have over a hundred growers and around 2000 acorns distributed. But I still have a lot more if you have space and the inclination. All it takes are some pots, some earth and water to keep them damp. I’ve been storing the acorns in damp leaf mulch and they are sprouting nicely, they just need foster homes. They really are no trouble.

In future years the project will expand to include birch, hazel, holly, hawthorn, black poplar, alder, ash, aspen, beech, wild cherry, bird cherry, crab apple, field maple, juniper, lime, poplar, scots pine, rowan, yew, white beam, willow, wych and elm, basically any native species bar a few.

Since this venture began, I have made contact with a lot of people and one of the nicest surprises has been to find many people who already grow trees or rescue them from their lawnmowers and flower beds. I was happy to be able to help some of these people who had large saplings to find a permanent home for them in a place designated by the council. So the project has already had its first planting out session too.

What I would also love to see in the future is people participating in tree surveys. Check out the Treezilla.org site. By surveying an urban tree or two we can contribute to a Nationwide database. The data collected will help future town planners with their tree planting choices, the aim is to put a value on each tree in terms of carbon capture, diversity and pleasure.

Could you be a tree guardian?

Please contact Helene hlaanest@yahoo.com or 07852 818178/0115 8775304.

Canopy 2050 website and email to come soon.


Trees of Beeston

“A culture is no better than its woods.” – W.H. Auden

It seems only fitting in this Trees of Beeston column to consider how the natural world, its biological systems and lifeforms, can give pointers to humans about valuing the interconnectedness of the local, the national, and international. Of the way nature abhors borders and boundaries, and demands fuller realisation by making connections with other places.  Plants and seeds serve as symbolic of hope: the seeds of an idea, the green shoots of new growth. The culture of sharing plants and trees across scale and between countries in terms of landscaping urban planning further exemplifies how human cultures and lives, and the animals that live alongside, can be enriched and life possibilities expanded by such exchanges of flora.

As a geographer, studying the world and its human and non-human interconnectedness is at the heart of the subject: how people and the environment are part of wider interdependent systems of life and life forms. And so it is that I bring you two tree-based sculptures, one living and growing, one formed of a once-living tree, fashioned as a reminder of the need for humans to remember their connectedness to the natural world and to each other. Both tree forms are located in Dovecote Park, and they are the European Union (E.U.) tree circle and the Yew Green man of Dovecote Park.


Encircling the bandstand of Dovecote Park, the E U tree circle acts like a fairy ring of twelve trees.  Each tree is a Norway Maple (Acer platanoides) a deciduous tree native to mainland Europe. Each one represents one of the twelve Western European Union member countries who had joined by the E U by the mid 1980s prior to the additional member states joining in the intervening years since the tree ring was planted in January 1993 by members of Broxtowe Borough Council’s Technical and Leisure Services Committee. Ornamentally, the Norway Maple is planted as a shade-giving tree, and certainly they have provided that to many picnic-going Beestonians attending events at the bandstand in recent summers.  As current debates rage around Britain’s political, economic and social membership of the E U, this tree circle serves as a reminder to the power of collective connection and endeavour, to look back to the past, to the cooperation and benefits of being connected to other parts of Europe and the world; and how trees have often provided a way to illustrate vital human kinships across national borders.  Think of the Norwegian spruce, gifted to Trafalgar Square every December, or else twin-town gifts of memorial trees planted in villages and towns up and down the British Isles by way of recognising civic friendship across the world. It is a reminder that our towns and cities are often enriched and benefit from landscaping ideas, such as tree-lined streets, stretching back to the Victorian era from landscaped parks and gardens across the globe, but in particular influenced by urban planning initiatives from France, Germany and Italy (Johnston 2017).  Such tree planting symbolises the desire of the people and place in which they are located to forge social, economic and political connections from the local to the global, marking an expansive vision of a more welcoming and humane world.

Dovecote Recreation Park was gifted to the residents of Broxtowe in 1908 and ever since continues to be a much loved and well used green space.

Plants and trees symbolize growth and fruitfulness. Gifting plants is a common enough practise. If one has the privilege of having an allotment or garden, consider how many plants or seeds are exchanged to enact knowledge exchange and friendship, to share the bounty and joy, the hope and growth promised in a single plant.  These small acts make landscapes more inclusive, more friendly, and serve to symbolize a humanity and humility. Hopeful acts from the past, living in the landscape of the present, signposting possibilities of hope for the future.


Green spaces such as parks also offer up much needed connectivity to the non-human world, for the mental and physical wellbeing to people who are able to avail themselves of it.  Dovecote Recreation Park was gifted to the residents of Broxtowe in 1908 and ever since continues to be a much loved and well used green space to residents for a variety of purposes: from those who once or twice daily walk their dogs, take their daily exercise, meet with friends to play, or simply as a space through which to wander and ponder life. To mark its centenary in 2008, the local Beestonian sculptor Stan Bullard (who used to have a striking totem pole in front of his house/studio on Dagmar Grove), carved the statue of the Green Man out of an old Yew trunk.  Replacing a previous statue on the site which commemorated the Earth Summit in 1992, the plaque tells how Bullard’s green man symbolises “man’s (sic) interaction with the natural green world”.  Carved from a found Yew tree trunk, Bullard’s Green Man is in thoughtful pose with a variety of insects, birds and animals surrounding him.  The sculpture gives afterlife to a tree (The Yew itself having many spiritual connotations to do with protection and the afterlife) and serves as reminder to those who see it of the need to be thoughtful of humans and their responsibility as custodians of the natural world, to live sustainably. It serves as reminder that our actions have consequences, and that what we do to the natural world, we ultimately do to ourselves.

In studying these two tree sculptures, new ways of seeing the other trees in the park become apparent.  Dovecote Park is blessed with a variety of trees: there is a stunning Oak, its branches reach out and provide glorious shade if one attends formal activities or has a picnic in the summer months.  There have, however, lately been a number of notable losses in the park: three trees that once stood near the Dovecote Road entrance have been felled as have the height of a number of poplars that once stood near them.  This removal also serves as reminder that our trees and our green spaces need to be cherished and valued for the priceless gifts they afford residents and visitors to the park, and that we have an ongoing responsibility to maintain and ensure their preservation.


Mark Johnston (2017) Street Trees in Britain: A History.  Oxbow Books.



Trees of Beeston #3: The wonders of the Evergreen and the Scots Pine of Beeston Parish Churchyard

For this evergreen seasonal column of Trees of Beeston, I want to celebrate those arboreal wonders that exist in our streets and gardens, public parks and along train-tracks and verges that are non-deciduous.

In particular, I want to celebrate the pine tree, which, given its connection with December and winter festivities such as the winter solstice and Christmas, seems entirely appropriate for this issue.

While deciduous trees shed their leaves in the autumn providing valuable mulch in the form of leaf litter and ground cover for hibernating small mammals and insects, evergreen trees and plants enrich our botanical landscape by retaining their leaves all year round, providing hedging and wildlife habitats. Think of the Pine and Firs, the Yews, the Holly trees and bushes, (*whispers, even the much maligned but much used Leylandii or Leyland Cypress*) the snaking vines of Ivy, or Mediterranean evergreens that have made their way into the gardens and landscapes of the British Isles such as the life-affirming herb Rosemary, the Myrtle or Juniper. These evergreens all provide cover as well as offering cones and berries for over-winter sustenance for those non-migratory birds who remain in the colder northern climates: the robins, wrens, blue-tits, blackbirds. When the snow falls, it is their needled and leaf-covered branches that hold the snow and keep the pavements below and around them less frozen and in turn less slippy for pedestrians venturing out on wintery days.

As the nights draw in, and the season turns colder in the northern hemisphere, us humans become a little more in touch with our animal souls: the need for hibernation, of taking stock, the desire to hunker down and, if we are fortunate, to take some rest and respite from the rude world, sat near a wood burning fire, a glass of something warming close by. By December, thoughts turn to bringing one particular kind of tree into the home to decorate with lights and baubles, and most often, it is the pine tree we think of.

This December column of Trees of Beeston is dedicated to celebrating the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris/ Guibhas).  There is considerable variation within this species, and it is the most widely distributed conifer in the world, its natural range spanning the Arctic circle and ranging all the way down to the Mediterranean.  Scots pines can average a height of 20m and live for between 250 – 300 years.  In its first 60 – 80 years, the tree resembles its recognisable conical shape, as it ages, it develops a tall, straight trunk of pinkish-brown bark with an impressive canopy of blueish-green needles, giving it an attractive and striking appearance in a wintery landscape otherwise drained of colour.  Here in Beeston, we have a very impressive example. Situated next to Beeston Parish Church on the corner between Styring Street and Chilwell Road, it can be admired from the tram and buses coming into and out of Beeston interchange. Standing proud and tall, indicating it has been in its current location for over a century given its scale and maturity, it acts as landmark and physical reminder of times past and passing time. One has to look up to truly appreciate it. The physical act of looking upwards gives perspective: it is an old and valued member of Beeston, and one to give respectful dues. The Magpies and crows love it as both a vantage perch and calling point, and it is rather lovely to sit near and revere, to meet folks under, to have alfresco lunch in the warmer months, to take time under between the school run, shopping excursions or when waiting for public transport.

Medicinally, pine has been used to treat respiratory problems.

The tradition of dressing a tree to celebrate the season of winter is a long one.  Looking to the Scandinavia, stories and traditions abound: Think of Hans Christian Anderson’s The Fir Tree, a classic story, reminding us all to celebrate our talents and to make the most of our time. Closer, in the British Isles, stories are abundant. Ancient Greek and Roman lore has it that the pine tree is closely connected with fertility.  Druids are said to light fires under Scots Pines at the winter solstice to celebrate the passing of the seasons and to draw back the sun.  Tree dressing and decorating a Scots pine with twinkling lights and candles, shiny objects, and a star become representations of divine light and the eternal hope of light in darkened times. Trees dressing is a seasonal ritual bringing people together to marvel at the lights, and to ponder the hope the lights and the evergreen give.

In England, Scots pines were used as landmarks for route-ways: planted along the boundaries of fields as well as along droving routes to guide farmers and their herds to markets. In Scotland, their forested form provides unique ecosystems for the rare and wondrous crossbill and a glorious unique biome for Highlands animals, as well as providing forested materials for trade and for human use.

The Scots pine has been deemed a vital construction material as the wood grows relatively quickly and its high resin content (that lovely, life-giving pine oil smell and sticky substance from the needles) means that the wood is slow to decay (think about this when you see the remains of a Christmas tree still littering gardens in March!).  The wood has been used in the making of ships: from masts to planking, while the resin from the sap of the tree was used to make pitch, to seal beer casks and the hulls of boats. Archaeologists have even found the hollowed out trunks of Scots pines used as drainage pipes. The soft pulp of a pine is also used in paper production.

Medicinally, pine has been used to treat respiratory problems, used as an inhalant as well as an antiseptic or disinfectant (which is why so many household products retain the scent of pines today).  The smell of pine needles is also one that is attached to making people feel uplifted, ideal when the dark nights and wintery weather can lead to feelings of despondency and seasonal depression.

While there are now many kinds of pine tree to bring into the home (some with bold claims of non-drop needles, or plastic varieties, which all, still somehow manage to drop their needles), it is important to think about how your pine tree might be of use beyond Christmas. If you have a garden and some space, you can of course think about buying a live tree, potting it on (not necessarily planting it out), and having it outside to enrich the local wildlife.  If you prefer a cut tree, there are still uses for the tree after the 12 days of Christmas is up. The tradition of the Yule Log is still retained in parts of this country and northern Europe where the pine tree is left to season and burnt the following winter to provide a warming source of light and heat. The smell of a pine burning also gives added pine aroma to a room.  The pine needles, once dried, can be used by gardeners wishing to make their soil more acidic – or ericaceous – by mixing them into compost or loamy soil when planting up blueberries in the early spring for summer home-grown berry consumption.

So hang the lights high, marvel at the enriching wonder of a Scots pine and its relative the festive Christmas tree, and wishing all readers a peaceful and loving Christmas and a hope-filled and tree-enriched 2019.

FACTFILE: The Scots Pine

Latin / Gallic name: Pinus sylvestris/ Guibhas.

Appearance: Up to 80 years of age, it is conical in shape, resembling popular drawings of Christmas trees. Blueish-green pine needles flank its branches that are thin as they rise up the tree, and its trunk is a reddish-brown, solid wood. Mature specimens have tall trunks that lead to a canopy of needle cover (see the Scots Pine in Beeston Parish Churchyard).

Uses: Annual Winter festivities see the most popular celebration of the Scots pine or conifer/fir trees as ‘the Christmas tree’ being brought into homes and work-places and dressed in lights and decorations.  This continues of the ritual of celebrating the winter months by bringing in a tree and the lighting of a fire, symbolic of warmth (the yule log) and eternal hope given by the light in the extended dark nights of winter.

The Scots pine is a useful timber for making paper and the resin has antibacterial and disinfecting medicinal properties and has an uplifting smell.

Dr JN.

Edlin, H.L (1973) Collins Guide to Tree Planting and Cultivation.  Gardeners’ Book Club.
Martynoya, F (2011) A Handbook of Scotland’s Trees. Saraband Books.
Nunnally, T(2004). The Fir Tree. From Fairy Tales by Hans Christian Andersen. Penguin Classics.

Trees of Beeston

Trees of Beeston is a psychogeographical and art project that celebrates the arboreal entities and architectures that enrich the landscapes and lives of humans and animals living, working, or visiting Beeston in Nottinghamshire, UK.


Between spring and autumn 2018, Dr Jo Norcup will facilitate a small group of Beestonian tree-appreciators under the moniker ‘The Beeston Tree Appreciation Society’. We will map and record (via words, sounds and pictures) stories of trees that serve as landmarks and enhance the landscape of Beeston. Informed by historical and civic activities as well as by the stories and connections that Beestonians and honorary Beestonians have in how they connect and appreciate the trees that mark our landscape, a gazetteer map will be created so that residents and visitors alike might explore the local geography of Beeston and the living landmarks that endow and make habitable life in this part of the East Midlands.

Tree appreciation will be further explored in a series of forthcoming workshops and local field trips to be held in the autumn (details TBA).

For further details on how to get involved and to find out more go to www.geographyworkshop.com/TreesOfBeeston

Please follow on social media via @geo_workshop hashtag #TreesOfBeeston

Trees of Beeston #1 “The Truffula Trees” (Silver Birches) of King Street.


“I speak for the trees, for they have no tongues”

In his children’s book The Lorax, Dr Seuss’s wise tree environmentalist and eco-warrior, The Lorax, warns of the rapid loss of trees and environments at the hands of short-term profiteering “I speak for the Trees” he repeats. The Once-ler (who narrates the sad story), tells how he learnt, too late, not to destroy the natural environment.  How, when the trees are removed, the animals, birds, insects and other animals move away, leaving a desolate and depleted landscape no animal, and indeed, no human wants to live in.  The moral: to be mindful of the future, to be wise custodians of the trees, plants, and animals that enrich our daily lives so that we and future generations might also have a quality of living that appreciates in turn the natural world and non-human lives that enrich it.

My son was the first to see the shape of the silver birches along King Street in Beeston as the Truffula trees of Dr Seuss’s tale.  On a street where there are no street trees to speak of apart from these majestic deciduous duo (save the holly tree growing from the cracked tarmac at the side of the ginnell wall between the motorcycle showroom and the housing near the Queen Street end of King Street – yes, I see you too wee tree), these two Silver Birches (and a couple of smaller saplings at their base) provide both landmark and respite to the eye from the primarily residential and industrial buildings along King Street.  Go closer to these trees, and you find a wee ecosystem, as the silver birch provides the lightest of canopy of leaves through which sunlight can dapple its way through to enable other plants to grow.  Other smaller saplings are present, fighting for light and space in their small location in front of an electrical sub-station where a small black fly-tipped bin and rubbish that someone has dumped has been grown over by wild flowers (“weeds” to give them their antisocial pejorative shorthand) and the foliage of the saplings.  Three types of valerian grow in white, pink and purple, giving colour and cover as well as pollen and habitat to insects and butterflies. The Silver Birch (Betula pendula) is known as a ‘pioneering tree’ because it can grow pretty much anywhere. The roots draw up nutrients and when its small serrated heart-shaped leaves and catkins fall, this deciduous tree provides fertile compostable nutrients in which other plants can find a home. It is a tiny oasis.  Walking past them regularly as we do, the sound of the leaves gently bristling in the slightest of breezes that on a parched heatwave day is akin to a lightly babbling brook. The sound calms. The cascade of leaves on thin branches cools with its light coverage. We always greet the trees with a respectful hello. They are friends.  They are much loved.  They make our daily lives better. We always slow down for them, more often than not stopping, for fleeting seconds to pay our respects. For local dog owners, these trees provide a stopping point and canine territorial interest. In 2013, The Beestonian (issue 21) published a poem by the local poet Steve Plowright about them.  It is repeated below.

A Pair of Silver Birch Trees

By Steve Plowright

Silver-soldered soldiers
Solid through the Seasons
Re-assurance resonates,
Whilst gazing through your filigree
Of branch and twig and leaf

Silver sheen of bark
Mercurial magicians
Light unwilling journeys
On sighing school mornings
You never beg to question

Just a pair of silver soldiers
Guardians of our secrets
You never show your feelings
Thanks for your solidarity
Thanks for being there


Tree facts: #1The Silver Birch

  • Botanical name: Betula pendula of family Betulacae
  • A native tree to Europe and parts of Asia, known in America as the European white birch.
  • Deciduous tree with a white peeling paper-like bark with slender and pendulous branches, it has small heart/triangular shaped leaves with serrated edges that are green in spring and summer, turning yellow before they fall in the autumn.
  • The Silver Birch flowers catkins and is self-pollinating bearing both male and female catkins (droopy and small, compact cylindrical respectively) that scatter seeds with the wind.
  • Known as a pioneer species of tree as they are often the first type of tree to appear in a clearing, the catkins produced often containing high levels of nitrates drawn up from the roots, the leaf and catkin litter producing fertile compost in which other plants are able to succeed.
  • Silver birches provide habitat for a diverse range of insect and bird species, and larger specimens in gardens and parks provide ideal perching points for songbirds.
  • Humans have derived a number of uses from the Silver Birch: their sap can be tapped when it rises in March, and the sweet liquid can be used a little like maple syrup or concentrated and fermented for brewing wine and beer. The timber of the Silver Birch can be used for joinery, firewood, brooms and tool handles. Medicinally, Silver Birch has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, and externally can be used to promote healing to relieve skin pain and inflammation as its decorative bark contains triterpenes.
  • The Silver Birch is the national tree of Finland.

References and wider reading:

Edlin, H.L. (1970) Collins guide to Tree Planting and Cultivation. Gardeners Book Club. Newton Abbott.

Plowright, S (2013) A pair of Silver Birch trees. The Beestonian no 21. Back page.